segunda-feira, 12 de março de 2012

Contemporary Philosophy, 1st session (Tomaz Fidalgo)

1st Class Phil ContemporaryWeltWittgenstein, Tractatus.Organization of the TractatusPhilologically determined sequence of the Tractatus:
Facts-Substance-Allinclusive Relationship between Satz and Welt 

The Tractatus fregean background.
Exposure of the analytical perspective:
Objective synthesis.
Frege's presuppositions: all judgments analytically defined.
Reduction of discourse to the logos apophantikos.
Function and Object. Argument. Instantiation. Quantifiers. Truth values. 

Extirpation of the Oratio Obliqua.
Reduction of all forms of discourse to Oratio Recta.
Extirpation of all subordinate clauses.
Reduction to coordinate clauses.
Extirpation of hypo-tactical thought organization.
Reduction to the paratactical thought organization.
Even if p, then q, p⊃q is material implication: ¬p⋁q.
"∴" is a coordinate conjunction, of course. 

Fregean system:
Non-existence of subordinate clauses, annihilation of every synthetical content as much as possible. The syntactic system of coordination as the less ambiguous. Transformation of all indirect statements into direct statements. Cancellation of all subjective perspectives. Cancellation of all intuitive access to any content as creating ambiguity. Destruction of the Latin infinitival clauses introduced by verba declarandi, sentiendi and affectuum).

How to make out of the whole language as we experience it massively a paratactical system? Only Negation, copulative, disjunctive and conclusive conjunctions are allowed in their possible combinations. 

The logical incompatibility with oratio obliqua. 

How to undo the very fact that every thought is a mode of access? That is, how to make all thought impersonal?

The concept of World in the Tractatus.The world (der Welt) is the context of production of meaning (Sinn).-We assume the world as the background: the world is what happens on a massive scale.-The world is the possibility of happening of X - the world is the background of any thing that can happen.- It is in this context (the world) that everything happens and everything goes on and may continue to happen - you must always presuppose the existence of the world where everything happens.Relationship between world and logical space: The logic of the world of logic are its possibilities: the possibility of everything that happens. The logical space; world as updating of the logical space.What is the relationship between isolated facts? What is the relationship between each of these facts and the specific contents of the life of somebody? What is the relationship between facts and different subjects?Introduction of the concept of substance (Substanz).Parallel to the book Z of Aristotle's Metaphysics. Substance as that which remains when  change takes place. The common denominator to change. The ability of zooming. Focusing the slightest details without loosing the perspective. What if the perspective is but the slightest one? The part does not cease to be part of X. An overall amplitude of perspective always corresponding to shapes: that's what's happening. The objects are what is happening. They are never isolated. Objects are the states of affairs, always as the situation is in any given circumstance.

In this sense, they are accidents of a world, a substance allowing changing scenarios : the object, the thing is that which remains in spite of its occurrence in various states of affairs. In this sense, there exists no object out of a state of affairs. Comparison with the relationship between whole and parts in the book Z of metaphysics. 

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