sexta-feira, 21 de outubro de 2011

PhD (Definições): Aparato da 3ª sessão, 21 de Outubro, 2011.


Platão, Sofista.
-Platonis Opera, Recognouit Breuique Adnotatione critica instruxit, Ioannes Burnet, Tomus I, Tetralogias I-II Continens, Oxonii e Typographeo Clarendoniano, 1989, 1ª ed.1900.
-Heidegger, M., Sophistes, Gesamtausgabe, II. Abteilung: Vorlesungen, 1919-1944, Band 19, Vittorio Klostermann, 1992.

218b5-c5: Análise do referente, da denotação de um nome. A necessidade de transitar para uma análise “lógica”. A análise lógica lida com a própria coisa. 
νῦν γὰρ δὴ σύ τε κἀγὼ/ τούτου πέρι τοὔνομα μόνον ἔχομεν κοινῇ, τὸ δὲ ἔργον ἐφ’/ ᾧ καλοῦμεν ἑκάτερος τάχ’ ἂν ἰδίᾳ παρ’ ἡμῖν αὐτοῖς ἔχοιμεν·/ δεῖ δὲ ἀεὶ παντὸς πέρι τὸ πρᾶγμα αὐτὸ μᾶλλον διὰ λόγων ἢ/ τοὔνομα μόνον συνωμολογῆσθαι χωρὶς λόγου. 
219b4: A determinação da τέχνη em geral como ποιεῖν. Decisivo não apenas para compreender o sentido do ser que faz de uma determinada coisa a coisa específica que ela é ao seu modo de ser determinado. Permite compreender também a forma da produção do próprio sentido como produção da coisa portadora desse sentido. Permite articulá-lo. Permite por assim dizer ressuscitar o sentido de uma coisa e assim a coisa com esse sentido. (Cf.: 221c7-b2)
Πᾶν ὅπερ ἂν μὴ πρότερόν τις ὂν ὕστερον εἰς οὐσίαν/ ἄγῃ, τὸν μὲν ἄγοντα ποιεῖν, τὸ δὲ ἀγόμενον ποιεῖσθαί πού (5)/ φαμεν.
  1. Antes e depois ou a princípio não e depois sim: cronologia: γένεσις/οὐσία. 
  2. Trazer, fazer ir, empurrar, puxar: agir como fazer, produzir. Estrutura: ἀρχὴ κινήσεως.
  3. Trazido, feito ir, empurrado, puxado: agido como feito, produzido.
  4. ΔΥΝΑΜΙΣ, 219b9.
240c1-5: A referência à estrutura complexa do λόγος. A συμπλοκή, a ἐπάλλαξις: entrelaçamento, cruzamento dos contrários e dos opostos: τὸ ὄν, τὸ αὐτό, τὸ ἕτερον, κίνησις, στάσις.
Κινδυνεύει τοιαύτην τινὰ πεπλέχθαι συμπλοκὴν/ τὸ μὴ ὂν τῷ ὄντι, καὶ μάλα ἄτοπον./ὁρᾷς γοῦν ὅτι καὶ νῦν διὰ/ τῆς ἐπαλλάξεως ταύτης ὁ πολυκέφαλος σοφιστὴς ἠνάγκακεν/ ἡμᾶς τὸ μὴ ὂν οὐχ ἑκόντας ὁμολογεῖν εἶναί πως. 
Pindarus, P 10, 6-10: 


τάν [sc. τεχνά] ποτε
Παλλὰς ἐφεῦρε
 θρασειᾶν
 <Γοργόνων>
οὔλιον
 θρῆνον διαπˈλέξαισ’
 Ἀθάνα·
{2Βʹ}2 τὸν παρθενίοις ὑπό τ’ ἀπˈλάτοις ὀφίων κεφαλαῖς
ἄϊε λειβόμενον
 δυσπενθέϊ
 σὺν καμάτῳ, (10)
Περσεὺς ὁπότε τˈρίτον ἄυσεν,
 κασιγˈνητᾶν μέρος
ἐνναλίᾳ Σερί̆φῳ λαοῖσί τε μοῖραν ἄγων.
244d3-12: A estrutura intencional do nome. A cisão do núcleo do nome. O nome da coisa. O nome como coisa. O nome do nome. Nomeação de segunda ordem. Nominalização da coisa. Coisificação do nome. A transitividade lógica já no plano nominal. 
Τιθείς τε τοὔνομα τοῦ πράγματος ἕτερον δύο λέγει
πού τινε.
 {ΘΕΑΙ.} Ναί. (5)
  {ΞΕ.} Καὶ μὴν ἂν ταὐτόν γε αὐτῷ τιθῇ τοὔνομα, ἢ μηδενὸς
ὄνομα ἀναγκασθήσεται λέγειν, εἰ δέ τινος αὐτὸ φήσει,
συμβήσεται τὸ ὄνομα ὀνόματος ὄνομα μόνον, ἄλλου δὲ
οὐδενὸς ὄν.
  {ΘΕΑΙ.} Οὕτως. (10)
  {ΞΕ.} Καὶ τὸ ἕν γε, ἑνὸς ὄνομα ὂν καὶ τοῦ ὀνόματος αὖ
τὸ ἓν ὄν.
247b7-e4: A lógica do sentido. Reificação da totalidade dos entes. Reificação do sentido. OU: recondução da realidade a uma estrutura de sentido. A realidade é “irreal”, só efectiva num sentido. O sentido articula-se em formas de compreensão: da ininteligibilidade à inteligibilidade absoluta. O espaço lógico admite dois aspectos fundamentais: o visado enquanto tal e o visar enquanto tal. Tudo o que está à vista, tudo o que não está à vista é TIDO EM VISTA. A únidade mínima da referência. Presença e sincronização. O que se dá num ápice, uma única vez, afecta o que é, torna-o presente, arranca-o à latência absoluta. 
 {ΘΕΑΙ.} Τοῦτο οὐκέτι κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἀποκρίνονται πᾶν, ἀλλὰ
τὴν μὲν ψυχὴν αὐτὴν δοκεῖν σφίσι σῶμά τι κεκτῆσθαι,
φρόνησιν δὲ καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἕκαστον ὧν ἠρώτηκας, αἰσχύ-
(c.) νονται τὸ τολμᾶν ἢ μηδὲν τῶν ὄντων αὐτὰ ὁμολογεῖν ἢ
πάντ’ εἶναι σώματα διισχυρίζεσθαι.
  {ΞΕ.} Σαφῶς γὰρ ἡμῖν, ὦ Θεαίτητε, βελτίους γεγόνασιν
ἇνδρες· ἐπεὶ τούτων οὐδ’ ἂν ἓν ἐπαισχυνθεῖεν οἵ γε αὐτῶν
σπαρτοί τε καὶ αὐτόχθονες, ἀλλὰ διατείνοιντ’ ἂν πᾶν ὃ μὴ @1 (5)
{ΘΕΑΙ.} Τὸ ποῖον δή; λέγε, καὶ τάχα εἰσόμεθα.
  {ΞΕ.} Λέγω δὴ τὸ καὶ ὁποιανοῦν [τινα] κεκτημένον δύναμιν
(e.) εἴτ’ εἰς τὸ ποιεῖν ἕτερον ὁτιοῦν πεφυκὸς εἴτ’ εἰς τὸ παθεῖν
καὶ σμικρότατον ὑπὸ τοῦ φαυλοτάτου, κἂν εἰ μόνον εἰς ἅπαξ,
πᾶν τοῦτο ὄντως εἶναι· τίθεμαι γὰρ ὅρον [ὁρίζειν] τὰ ὄντα
ὡς ἔστιν οὐκ ἄλλο τι πλὴν δύναμις.
261c6-263d4: A estrutura do λόγος.
Notas:
1 συμπλοκή, ἡ, intertwining, complication, combination, τῇ [τῶν ἀτόμων] συμπλοκῇ . . πάντα γεννᾶσθαι Democr. ap.Arist.Cael.303a7, cf. Thphr.Sens.66, Sor.2.4; used by Pl. as a generic term for weaving and its kindred arts, Plt.281a, cf. 306a, al.; ἡ ἁπάντων πρὸς ἄλληλα σ. Plb.1.4.11, cf. Phld.Sign.37, D.3.8(pl.); συνέχεια καὶ σ. Plot.3.1.4; εἱμαρμένη defined as σ. αἰτιῶν,Stoic.2.284.
2. struggle, esp. of wrestlers, ἡ ἐν ταῖς σ. μάχη a close struggle, Pl.Lg.833a, cf. Plb. 1.15.3, Gal.15.126,197; of ships,close engagement, Plb.1.27.12, 1.28.11, SIG567.11 (Calymna, iii B.C.); of cavalry, Onos.10.6.
3. embrace, sexual intercourse, Pl.Smp.191c,Arist.HA540b21, Corn. ND24, Sor.1.31, al.
4. combination of letters to form a word or of words to form a proposition, Pl.Plt.278b sq.; λόγος ἐγένετο . . ἡ πρώτη σ.Id.Sph.262c, cf. Tht.202b, D.H.Pomp.6; σ. τῶν ὀνομάτωνDemetr.Lac.Herc.1113.2, cf. Phld.Po.2.33, al.; also combination of mental acts so as to form one entity, οὐδὲ σ. δόξης καὶ αἰσθήσεως φαντασία ἂν εἴη Arist.de An.428a25, cf. PA643b16; combination of subject and predicate, σ. γὰρ νοημάτων ἐστὶ τὸ ἀληθὲς ἢ ψεῦδοςId.de An.432a11, cf. Top.113a1; κατὰ συμπλοκὴν λέγεσθαι, opp.ἄνευ συμπλοκῆς, Id.Cat.1a16, cf. Stoic.2.69, etc.
5. Gramm., the copula, D.H.Dem.9.
6. Rhet., interweaving of various styles, Id.Rh.8.8: but also name of a rhet. figure, Alex.Fig.p.30S.
7. Medic., of ingredients, μετὰ τῆς πρὸς τοὺς φοίνικας σ. in combination with . . , Sor.1.50, cf. 115.




2 ἐπάλλ-αξις, εως, ἡ, interweaving or dovetailing, Antipho Soph.20(pl.); αἱ ἐ. τοῦ χάρακος Plb. 18.18.11; ἡ ἐ. τῶν δακτύλων crossing of two fingers so as to feel double, Arist.Metaph.1011a33,Insomn.460b20, Pr.958b14; linking together, Id.Mete.387a12.
2. overlapping of species, Id.GA732b15; confusion of different things, Str.12.8.2.
b. alternation, Pl. Sph.240c.
3. change, θέσεως Hierocl.in CA1p.419M.; διαιτημάτωνGal.6.59 (pl.); varieties of abnormal constitutions, ib.385 (pl.).


3 πλέκ-ω, Pi.O. 6.86, etc.: fut. πλέξω AP5.146 (Mel.): aor. Ἔπλεξα Il.14.176, etc.: pf. πέπλοχα (Att. acc. to Hdn.Gr.2.356), (δια-)Hp.Oss.16, (ἐμ-) ibid., but ἐμ-πέπλεχε ib.17:—Med., fut. Πλέξομαι Perict. ap. Stob.4.28.19: aor. ἐπλεξάμην Od.10.168, Ar.Lys.790:—Pass., fut. πλεχθήσομαι (ἐμ-) A.Pr.1079 (anap.); πλᾰκήσομαι(ἐπι-) Gal.6.873: aor. ἐπλέχθην A.Eu.259 (lyr.), Pl.Plt.283a, (περι-)Od.23.33; but also aor. 2 ἐπλάκην [ᾰ], part. πλᾰκείς (ἐμ-)E.Hipp.1236, (συμ-) S.Fr.618; also part. κατα-πλεκείς Hsch., v.l. inPlb.3.73.1, περι-πλεκείς Tim.Pers.157, συμπλεκείς Hdt.8.84 (v.l. -πλακ-): pf. πέπλεγμαι Id.7.72, etc.:—plait, twine, πλοκάμους ἔπλεξε φαεινούς Il.14.176; στέφανον Pi.I.8(7).73, cf. Ar.Th.458; ἐκ τῆς βίβλου ἱστία Thphr.HP4.8.4; ἀνθερίκεσσι ἀκριδοθήραν Theoc.1.52:—Med., πεῖσμα . . πλεξάμενος having twisted me a rope,Od.10.168, cf. Hdt.2.28; π. ἄρκυς Ar.Lys.790 (lyr.):—Pass., κράνεα πεπλεγμένα of basket-work, Hdt.7.72; χρέωνται σειρῇσι πεπλεγμένῃσι ἐξ ἱμάντων ib.85; βρόχος πεπλ. σπάρτου X.Cyn.9.13.
2. make by art, βωμόν Call.Ap.61.
II. metaph., devise, contrive, mostly of tortuous means, π. δόλον ἀμφί τινι A.Ch.220: prov., δειϜοὶ πλέκειν τοι μηχανὰς ΑἰγύπτιοιId.Fr.373; so π. πλοκάς E.Ion826; ἐκ τέχνης τέχνην ib.1280;παντοίας παλάμας Ar.V.644 (lyr.):—Pass., μηχανὴ πεπλεγμένηE.Andr.995.
2. of Poets, π. ὕμνον, ῥήματα, Pi.O.6.86, N.4.94; ᾠδάς CritiasFr.1 D.; π. λόγους E.Rh.834, Pl.Hp.Mi.369b; form the plot of a tragedy, opp. λύειν, Arist.Po.1456a9:—hence in Pass., μῦθοι πεπλεγμένοι complex, opp. ἁπλοῖ, ib.1452a12, cf. b32, 1459b9;συλλογισμὸς πεπλ. Arr.Epict.1.29.34; πέπλεκται [ἡ τῶν συμπάντων τῶν ὄντων νομοθεσία] ἐκ . . λόγων τε καὶ αἰτίων κτλ. Plot.4.3.15.
3. χρόνον τοῦ ζῆν π., = διαπλέκω II, Euphro 5.
4. compound, ἐκ λευκοῦ καὶ μέλανος AP12.165 (Mel.):—Pass., of words or syllables, to be compounded, Pl.Tht.202b,Ael.NA5.30.
5. Pass., twine oneself round, περὶ βρέτει πλεχθεὶς θεᾶςA.Eu.259 (lyr.).
6. Pass., to be involved, entangled, Vett.Val.169.32. (Cf. Lat.plecto, im-plico, OHG. flehtan.)




4 ἐφευρ-ίσκω, Ion. ἐπ-ευρίσκω, fut. ἐφευρήσω: aor. 2 ἐφηῦρον orἐφεῦ-; Aeol. ἐπεύρ[οι] Sapph.Supp.4.9: pf. ἐφηύρηκα S.El.1093(lyr.), Euphro 1.17, etc.:— find or discover, find anywhere, εἴ που ἐφεύροι ἠῑόνας λιμένας τε Od.5.439, cf. 417, Pl.Phdr.266a: usu. c.part., ὃν δ’ αὖ . . βοόωντα ἐφεύροι Il.2.198; δαινυμένους δ’ εὖ πάντας ἐφεύρομεν Od.10.452; τήν γ’ ἀλλύουσαν ἐφεύρομεν ἀγλαὸν ἱστόν we discovered her undoing it, 24.145, cf. S.El.1093 (lyr.),Pl.Plt.307c; Κύπρι . . σε πικροτάταν ἐπεύροι prob. in Sapph. l.c.:—Pass., μὴ ἐπευρεθῇ πρήσσων Hdt.9.109; κλέπτων ὅταν τις . . ἐφευρεθῇ S.Fr.930; δρῶν ἐφευρίσκῃ (2sg.) Id.OC928; ἐφηύρημαι κακός (sc. ὤν) Id.OT1421, cf. Ant.281; δειλὸς ὢν ἐφηυρέθηςE.Supp.319.
2. discover besides, v.l. for ἔθ’ εὑρ. in Od.19.158; ταῖς ἀρχαίαις τέσσαρας χορδάς Paus.3.12.10.
3. bring in besides, ὅσα δ’ ἂν ἐφευρίσκῃ [τὰ τέλη] X.Vect.4.40.
II. find out, invent, of arts, [τέχναν] Pi.P.12.7 (Med. μῆτιν -ευρομένοις ib.4.262); σοφῶς ἐφεῦρες ὥστε μὴ θανεῖν E.Alc.699.
2. find out, discover, ἐφεῦρε δ’ ἄστρων μέτρα καὶ περιστροφάςS.Fr.432.8; χρόνου διατριβάς ib.479, cf. Cratin. 140; ἴδιόν τι Euphro1.17; ὁσίαν ἐπίνοιαν SIG799.5 (Cyzicus, i A.D.).




5 θρᾰσύς, εῖα, ύ, fem. θρασέα, metri gr., Philem.20 (s.v.l.):—bold, chiefly of persons, Il.8.89, etc.; also θ. πόλεμος 6.254, 10.28,Od.4.146; θρασειάων ἀπὸ χειρῶν 5.434, Il.17.662, al.; θ. καρδίαPi.P.10.44; πούς Ar.Ra.330 (lyr.); ἐν τῷ ἔργῳ ἔργῳ θρασύςHdt.7.49; ἡ ἐλπὶς θρασεῖα τοῦ μέλλοντος full of confidence,Th.7.77; θρασὺς τὸ ἦθος Arist.Pol.1315a11.




6 οὔλιος, α, ον, (οὖλος C) = ὀλοός, baleful, deadly, οὔ. ἀστήρ, of the dog-star, Il.11.62; epith. of Ares, Hes.Sc.192,441, Pi.O.9.76;αἰχμαί, θρῆνος, ib.13.23, P.12.8: once in Trag., οὔ. πάθος S.Aj.932(lyr.).




7 διαπλέκω, weave, plait, σάνδαλα h.Merc.80; opp. διαλύω,Hdt.4.67; τὰ τὸν ὄσχεον διαπλέκοντα σώματα Paul.Aeg.6.62: metaph., θρῆνον δ. Pi.P.12.8; ἀγὰν πάγχυ δ. to try every twist, wind all ways, ib.2.82:—Med., διαπλέξασθαι κόμας plait one's hair,Aristaenet.1.25: —Pass., ψυχὴ διαπλακεῖσα interwoven [with matter] . ., Pl.Ti.36e, cf. Plot.1.1.3.
II. metaph., διαπλέξαντος τὸν βίον εὖ finish the web of one's life,Hdt.5.92.ζʹ; δ. βίοτον λιπαρῷ γήραϊ Pi.N.7.99; ἁμέραν prob. inAlcm.23.38; ἀσκητικόν τινα βίον Pl.Lg.806a, cf. Com.Adesp.231: without βίον, δ. ζῶν ἡδέως Ar.Av.754.


8 λείβ-ω, Il.1.463, etc.: aor. inf. λεῖψαι, part. λείψας, 7.481, 24.285:— Med., aor. ἐλειψάμην E.Alc.1015:—Pass., Hes.Sc.390, E.(v.infr.):— pour, pour forth, used like σπένδω in a religious sense,οἶνον λείβειν make a libation of wine, Il.1.463, Od.3.460; μέθυ12.362; also λείβειν (without οἶνον) Il.24.285; ἐξ ἀσαμίνθου κύλικος λ. Cratin.234; esp. with a dat. of the gods to whom the libation is made, λεῖψαι Κρονίωνι Il.7.481; θεοῖς Od.2.432; in full, Διὶ λ. αἴθοπα οἶνον Il.6.266, cf. 10. 579: rare in Trag., σπονδὰς θύειν τε λ. τ’ A.Supp.981; σπονδὰς θεοῖς λ. E.Ion1033:—Med., σπονδάςId.Alc.l.c.
II. like εἴβω (q.v.), let flow, shed, δάκρυα λ. Il.13.88, 658, Od.5.84,16.214; δάκρυ λ. A. Th.51; ἐκ δ’ ὀμμάτων λείβουσι δυσφιλῆ λίβα(δία cod. M) Id.Eu.54; δι’ ὄμματος ἀστακτὶ λ. δάκρυον S.OC1251;τήκειν καὶ λ. (abs.) melt and liquefy one's spirit, Pl.R.411b:—Pass., of the tears, to be shed, pour forth, E.Ph.1522 (lyr.), X.Cyr.6.4.3; but also, of persons, λείβομαι δάκρυσιν κόρας have my eyesrunning with tears, E.Andr.532 (lyr.).
2. of other liquids, κόμαι λείβουσιν ἔλαια drip with oil,Call.Ap.38:—Pass., ἀφρὸς περὶ στόμα λείβεται Hes.l.c., cf. Pl.Ti.82d; ὅπλα λύθρῳ λ., τύμβος λ. μέλιτι, AP6.163 (Mel.), 7.36 (Eryc.): metaph., of sound (cf. χέω), θρῆνον . . λειβόμενον . . σὺν καμάτῳPi.P. 12.10.
III. in Pass., also, melt or pine away, Ar.Eq.327 (lyr.), Plu.2.681b.—σπένδω was nearly equiv. in sense, and was used in Att. Com. and Prose (exc. Pl.and X.ll.cc.).




9 δυσπενθ-ής, ές, bringing sore affliction, direful, κάματοςPi.P.12.10; δόλος ib.11.18; θαλάμοιο . . δυσπενθέα κόσμονEpigr.Gr.431 (Antioch); Ἀΐδας IPE2.286.5 (Panticapaeum).
2. bitterly lamented, of the dead, Opp.H.4.261.




10 αὔω (B), fut. ἀΰσω E.Ion 1446: aor. ἤϋσα (v. infr.):—cry out, shout, call aloud, freq. in Hom., αὖε δ’ Ἀθήνη Il.20.48, cf. Call.Dian.56 sq.;κέκλετ’ ἀΰσας Il.4.508, cf. 6.66, etc.; μακρὸν ἄϋσε 5.101; ἤϋσε . . μέγα τε δεινόν τε ὄρθια 11.10; ἤϋσεν δὲ διαπρύσιον ib.275, etc.:—also in Trag., αὔειν λακάζειν A.Th.186; μηδὲν μέγ’ ἀΰσῃς S.El.830(lyr.); δεινὸν δ’ ἀΰσας OT1260: c. acc. cogn., utter, στεναγμὸν . . ἀΰσατ’ E. Supp.800 (lyr.); τίν’ αὐδὰν ἀΰσω; Id.Ion1446.
2. c. acc. pers., call upon, αὖε δ’ ἑταίρους Il.11.461, 13.475, cf. Od.9.65, Theoc.13.58.
3. rarely of things, ring, καρφαλέον δέ οἱ ἀσπὶς . . ἄϋσενIl.13.409 (v. sub αὖος 2); of the sea, roar, A.R.2.566. [In pres. andimpf. αὐ- is a diphthong; in fut. and aor. a disyll. ᾰ̓ῡσω, ἤῡσα.]


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